We have been working on something quite similar.
When working with Storyline you will need to ensure that you use the built in quizzing functionality in Storyline. So you will need to use the tools like graded multiple choice, fill in the blank and many others. If you have created your own you can use "Convert to Freeform" to convert them into these quizzes. This will also allow you to assign values to various options and start to score your learner based on their answers. At the end of a quiz you will need to use a results slide to calculate their results. Using this method will ensure that data will be passed to the Learning Record Store (LRS) in the correct way using the Tin Can API.
When you publish the course you will need to publish it for your LMS and select Tin Can API Reporting and Tracking. When you set up the options for Tin Can you'll need to track results using a Results Slide.
As you mentioned you will need a Tin Can compatible LMS and an LRS. The data from the course will be passed to the LRS and for reporting you will need to retrieve this data. Depending on your LMS the LRS will need to be set somewhere. There is a lot of documentation on the API in order to help developers. If you have a look at http://tincanapi.com/public-lrs/ you can see the type of information that is passed to the LRS and how that might be used in reporting. You can retrieve this data using various methods.
Have a look at http://tincanapi.com/.