Our assessment process varies widely based on the course. To choose which one I want to use, I first decide (either myself, with a SME or the client just depending) on what we want the FINAL outcome to be. What do we want them to walk away from training able to DO. That answer helps guide the assessment decision and determine how much weight the assessment should have. Here are some examples of different things we do. All of these assume the need to track the training in some way.
"They don't need to DO anything. It's a compliance course and we just want an electronic signature that they viewed it"
That will often be a super simple, "click here to acknowledge you have read and understand the above policy"
"It's not compliance related but we want to know they completed the course so we can track it"
This is not my favorite, but it's common. To me it says, we just want to be able to say we "trained" you. Sometimes that's just the reality so for these, I'll write an assessment (usually mult choice) based on the learning objectives, with realistic options. These are electronic and launch after the course.
"They need to be able to DO X after the training. For example, use a new software, fill out the TPS report correctly, etc"
This one varies by how complex the objectives are. When they need to learn a new behavior, these are the courses where I build in interactions, scenarios, whatever I can do to support the objectives and help them retain the steps. The success of these are not tracked, just part of the instructional design and learning experience. We still include an electronic post test for measurement and tracking. These have historically been mult. choice and T/F type questions but we're moving towards Quizmaker so the test is no longer external. Either way, the questions included still support the objectives. If there is an important nuance or frequent mistake area, I write that into the assessment. This not only measures the learner's understanding, but also helps build on the learning opportunity.
When it applies, we will also add practice exercises that they print off and do externally. These are not measured, but could be.
"They need to learn how to DO something that has a large impact on their roll or the company. For example, a new Sales Method or tool"
This can get pretty big and we'll do all different things from everything listed above to webinars and instructor led. Sometimes, in addition to the standard assessment at the end of each course, we will also create Case Study type projects on paper. These are things the employee works on over time as a development project. When they are finished, we go into the LMS and give them credit manually.
Of course there are all sorts of variations on all of this, but these are some of the main ones we use currently. If you are looking for assessment writing guidelines, Google How to Write an Assessment or something to that effect and you will get all sorts resources.
I hope this helps!